IGNITE – Gender norms study: Women-led micro and small businesses – Executive summary Vietnam 2022

Social Norms are the rules that govern behavior. Gender norms are social norms defining acceptable and appropriate actions for women and men in a given group or society. They are embedded in formal and informal institutions, nested in the mind, and produced and reproduced through social interaction. They play a role in shaping women and men’s (often unequal) access to resources and freedoms, thus affecting their voice, power and sense of self.

The purpose of this study was to gain quantitative and qualitative information about social and gender norms affecting women entrepreneurs in Vietnam related to childcare responsibilities, who should be the breadwinner and who is upholding these norms. The focus group consisted of growth-oriented entrepreneurs with two or more employees and who have been in business for at least two years. Two norms were tested in this study:

1. Businesswomen should be the main childcare giver, rather than the man

2. Men should be the breadwinners of their families, rather than businesswomen

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